Thinking Connections uses engaging concept map to teach life science and help you easily evaluate your student’s knowledge of key life science connections.
Concept Files provide the necessary information to complete the lessons. Students carefully analyze and synthesize this information, then fill in the relationships on the concept maps. Each lesson includes hints, starting points, and two maps (an easier one and a more challenging one) for students of varying abilities.
Easy-to-follow explanations, suggestions, and answers make these activities simple and effective to teach. No previous experience with concept maps is needed.
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Sample Questions from the Anatomy & Physiology 06 The Skeletal System Flashcards
Question: In what ways do intramembranous and endochondral ossification differ?
In intramembranous ossification, bone develops directly from sheets of mesenchymal connective tissue, but in endochondral ossification, bone develops by replacing hyaline cartilage. Intramembranous ossification is complete by the end of the adolescent growth spurt, while endochondral ossification lasts into young adulthood. The flat bones of the face, most of the cranial bones, and a good deal of the clavicles (collarbones) are formed via intramembranous ossification, while bones at the base of the skull and the long bones form via endochondral ossification.
Question: If you were a dietician who had a young female patient with a family history of osteoporosis, what foods would you suggest she include in her diet? Why?
Since maximum bone mass is achieved by age 30, I would want this patient to have adequate calcium and vitamin D in her diet. To do this, I would recommend ingesting milk and other dairy foods, green leafy vegetables, and intact canned sardines so she receives sufficient calcium. Intact salmon would be a good source for calcium and vitamin D. Other fatty fish would also be a good vitamin D source.
Question: Considering how a long bone develops, what are the similarities and differences between a primary and a secondary ossification center?
A single primary ossification center is present, during endochondral ossification, deep in the periosteal collar. Like the primary ossification center, secondary ossification centers are present during endochondral ossification, but they form later, and there are two of them, one in each epiphysis.
Question: The skeletal system is composed of bone and cartilage and has many functions. Choose three of these functions and discuss what features of the skeletal system allow it to accomplish these functions.
It supports the body. The rigid, yet flexible skeleton acts as a framework to support the other organs of the body. It facilitates movement. The movable joints allow the skeleton to change shape and positions; that is, move. It protects internal organs. Parts of the skeleton enclose or partly enclose various organs of the body including our brain, ears, heart, and lungs. Any trauma to these organs has to be mediated through the skeletal system. It produces blood cells. The central cavity of long bones is filled with marrow. The red marrow is responsible for forming red and white blood cells. It stores and releases minerals and fat. The mineral component of bone, in addition to providing hardness to bone, provides a mineral reservoir that can be tapped as needed. Additionally, the yellow marrow, which is found in the central cavity of long bones along with red marrow, serves as a storage site for fat.
Question: What is the difference between closed reduction and open reduction? In what type of fracture would closed reduction most likely occur? In what type of fracture would open reduction most likely occur?
In closed reduction, the broken ends of a fractured bone can be reset without surgery. Open reduction requires surgery to return the broken ends of the bone to their correct anatomical position. A partial fracture would likely require closed reduction. A compound fracture would require open reduction.
Question: During the early years of space exploration our astronauts, who had been floating in space, would return to earth showing significant bone loss dependent on how long they were in space. Discuss how this might happen and what could be done to alleviate this condition.
Astronauts floating in space were not exerting significant pressure on their bones; they were "weightless." Without the force of gravity exerting pressure on the bones, bone mass was lost. To alleviate this condition, astronauts now do resistive exercise designed to apply forces to the bones and thus help keep them healthy.
Question: What are the structural and functional differences between the femur and the patella?
Structurally, the femur is a long bone, meaning its length is greater than its width, while the patella, a sesamoid bone, is small and round. Functionally, the femur acts as a lever, while the patella protects the patellar tendon from compressive forces.
Question: In what ways is the structural makeup of compact and spongy bone well suited to their respective functions?
The densely packed concentric rings of matrix in compact bone are ideal for resisting compressive forces, which is the function of compact bone. The open spaces of the trabeculated network of spongy bone allow spongy bone to support shifts in weight distribution, which is the function of spongy bone.
Question: If the articular cartilage at the end of one of your long bones were to degenerate, what symptoms do you think you would experience? Why?
If the articular cartilage at the end of one of your long bones were to deteriorate, which is actually what happens in osteoarthritis, you would experience joint pain at the end of that bone and limitation of motion at that joint because there would be no cartilage to reduce friction between adjacent bones and there would be no cartilage to act as a shock absorber.
Question: What are the structural and functional differences between a tarsal and a metatarsal?
Structurally, a tarsal is a short bone, meaning its length, width, and thickness are about equal, while a metatarsal is a long bone whose length is greater than its width. Functionally, the tarsal provides limited motion, while the metatarsal acts as a lever.