will include airports, a deep harbor, an information depot, freeways, and high-speed railways, linked to the citywide road system, the passenger transit system, and the freight system. It will have intermodal terminal facilities, with the capability to support the expected passenger and freight traffic. Finally, the transportation management system will use advanced technologies to ensure smooth operations, safety, environmental protection, and high efficiency.
The passenger transport system will embrace four distinct public transport services. The rail system will be expanded, with a capacity ratio of rail transportation to buses of 6:4. The rail system will have three levels: citywide freeway, townwide artery, and interborough main streets. Traditional public ground transportation will support more than half of the passenger trips, serving short- and medium-distance passengers and those traveling to areas not covered by rail. Within the public ground transportation system, priority will be given to buses for parking, traffic flow, and passenger transfer nodes. To help limit congestion, the number of taxis will be controlled to reduce the vacancy rate from 50 percent to 30 percent. The role of ferries also will be reduced, with an emphasis on providing more service for bicycles. Finally, terminals will be built to facilitate passenger use of the multimodal system.
The road system will be designed specifically to increase the capacity of the downtown street area. Downtown roads will be classified as freeways, arteries, main streets, or local streets. New, outgoing arteries from downtown will serve the new suburban cities, airports, and industrial areas, with speed limits higher than on ring roads and internodal connectors, for both passengers and freight. Part of the road system will be designated for freight to expedite commercial activity without causing excess congestion of central areas. Bicycle lanes will be constructed, and separation of motor vehicles and nonmotorized vehicles will be maintained. Similarly, the pedestrian environment will be protected, with walk signals and pedestrian malls in commercial areas. A new comprehensive parking system, with fees and space designed to limit auto traffic in the city center, will include public parking lots for the transportation nodes in the suburbs.
Perhaps most important, a traffic management system will be developed to manage the time distribution and space distribution of traffic flow, using methods such as land use management, toll fees, parking restrictions, information guidance for drivers, and restricted area policies. The goal will be to create a modern traffic environment suitable for an international metropolis. The Adaptive Signal Timing System will be expanded and improved. A major feature of the new system will be an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) based on information technology. The main information resources of the ITS will include real-time traffic flow, socioeconomic information, parking availability, vehicular traffic, freight traffic, police status, and a basic geographic information system. The ITS will enable the Shanghai authorities to monitor and respond to changes in the vehicle
This paper analyzes the processes and characteristics of urbanization in Shanghai, focusing on the population and land use and land cover (LULC) change, and its correlation with the evolution of climatic and ecological indicators based on the historical land use data, meteorological station data, social statistical data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (LST) data. The possible association between urban heat island (UHI) and urbanization indicators are also discussed. Examination of the population variation indicates a continuously increase of registered population and a rapid increase of floating population that mainly comes from neighboring provinces in recent years. With rapid urban sprawl, a large amount of cultivated lands has been replaced with building lands around urban areas and towns of Shanghai. Urbanization is correlated with the increase of air temperature, hot days and the decrease of relative humidity, wind speed and vegetation NDVI in Shanghai. The growth of UHI in Shanghai has been driven by the continuous increase of buildings, paved roads, buses, population and GDP, as well as the decrease of cultivated land. Boosting the area of green land in urban areas has to a certain extent mitigated the UHI in Shanghai in recent years.