The Journal of Asian Studies
For 56 years, The Journal of Asian Studies has been recognized as the most authoritative and prestigious publication in the field of Asian Studies. This quarterly has been published regularly since November 1941, offering Asianists a wealth of information unavailable elsewhere. Each issue contains four to five feature articles on topics involving the history, arts, social sciences, philosophy, and contemporary issues of East, South, and Southeast Asia, as well as a large book review section.
Coverage: 1956-2014 (Vol. 16, No. 1 - Vol. 73, No. 4)
The "moving wall" represents the time period between the last issue available in JSTOR and the most recently published issue of a journal. Moving walls are generally represented in years. In rare instances, a publisher has elected to have a "zero" moving wall, so their current issues are available in JSTOR shortly after publication.
Note: In calculating the moving wall, the current year is not counted.
For example, if the current year is 2008 and a journal has a 5 year moving wall, articles from the year 2002 are available.
- Terms Related to the Moving Wall
- Fixed walls: Journals with no new volumes being added to the archive.
- Absorbed: Journals that are combined with another title.
- Complete: Journals that are no longer published or that have been combined with another title.
Subjects: Asian Studies, Area Studies
Collections: Arts & Sciences I Collection, Asia Collection, JSTOR Essential Collection
Filipinos in what is now the United States were first documented in the 16th century, with small settlements beginning in the 18th century. Mass migration did not begin until the early 20th century, and for a period the History of the Philippines merged with that of the United States. After the independence of the Philippines from the United States, Filipino Americans continued to grow in population and had events that are associated with them.
See also: History of Asian American immigration
Researchers[who?] have looked upon the patterns of immigration of Filipinos to the United States and have recognized four significant waves. The first was connected to the period when the Philippines was part of New Spain and later the Spanish East Indies; Filipinos, via the Manila galleons, would migrate to North America.
The second wave was during the period when the Philippines were a territory of the United States; as U.S. Nationals, Filipinos were unrestricted from immigrating to the US by the Immigration Act of 1917 that restricted other Asians. This wave of immigration has been referred to as the manong generation. Filipinos of this wave came for different reasons, but the majority were laborers, predominantly Ilocano and Visayan. This wave of immigration was distinct from other Asian Americans, due to American influences, and education, in the Philippines; therefore they did not see themselves as aliens when they immigrated to the United States. During the Great Depression, Filipino Americans were also affected, losing jobs, and being the target of race-based violence. This wave of immigration ended due to the Philippine Independence Act in 1934, which restricted immigration to 50 persons a year.
Later, due to basing agreements with the Philippines, Filipinos were allowed to enlist in the United States Navy, this continued a practice of allowing Filipinos to serve in the Navy that began in 1901. Before the end of World War I Filipino sailors were allowed to serve in a number of ratings, however due to a rules change during the interwar period Filipino sailors were restricted to officers' stewards and mess attendants. This ended in 1946, following the independence of the Philippines from the United States, but resumed in 1947 due to language inserted into the Military Base Agreement between the United States and the Republic of the Philippines. In 1973, Admiral Zumwalt removed the restrictions on Filipino sailors, allowing them to enter any rate they qualified for; in 1976 there were about 17,000 Filipinos serving in the United States Navy; they created a distinct Navy-related Filipino American immigrant community.
The third wave of immigration followed the events of World War II. Filipinos who had served in World War II had been given the option of becoming U.S. Citizens, and many took the opportunity, upwards of 10,000 according to Barkan. Filipina War brides were allowed to immigrate to the United States due to War Brides Act and Fiancée Act, with approximately 16,000 Filipinas entering the United States in the years following World War II. This immigration was not limited only to Filipinas and children; between 1946 and 1950, there was recorded one Filipino Groom granted immigration under the War Brides Act. A source of immigration was opened up with the Luce-Celler Act of 1946 that gave the Philippines a quota of 100 persons a year; yet records show that 32,201 Filipinos immigrated between 1953 and 1965. This wave ended in 1965.
The fourth and present wave of immigration began in 1965 with passing of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 into law. It ended national quotas into law, and provided an unlimited number of visas for family reunification. By the 1970s and 1980s Filipina wives of service members reach annual rates of five to eight thousand. Navy based immigration stopped with the expiration of the military bases agreement in 1992; yet it continues in a more limited fashion. Many Filipinas of this new wave of migration have migrated here as professionals due to a shortage in qualified nurses.
Philippine Immigration Today
In 2016, there were around 50,609 Filipinos who obtained their legal permanent residency, according to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Of those Filipinos receiving their legal permanent residency status in 2016, 66% were new arrivals, while 34% were immigrants who adjusted their status within the U.S.  In 2016, data collected from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security found that the categories of admission for Filipino immigrants were composed mainly of immediate relatives, that is 57% of admissions . This makes the admission of immediate relatives for Filipinos higher than the overall average LPR immigrants, which is composed of only 47.9%. Following immediate relative admission, family sponsored and employment-based admission make up the next highest means of entry for Philippine immigration, with 28% and 14% respectively . Like immediate relative admission, both of these categories are higher than that of the overall U.S. LPR immigrants. Diversity, refugees and asylum, and other categories of admission make up less than a percent of Filipino immigrants granted LPR status in 2016.
- 1573-1811, Roughly between 1556 and 1813, Spain engaged in the Galleon Trade between Manila and Acapulco. The galleons were built in the shipyards of Cavite, outside Manila, by Filipino craftsmen. The trade was funded by Chinese traders, manned by Filipino sailors and "supervised" by Mexico City officials. In this time frame, Spain recruited Mexicans to serve as soldiers in Manila. Likewise, they drafted Filipinos to serve as soldiers in Mexico. Once drafted, the trip across the ocean sometimes came with a "one way" ticket.
- 1587, First Filipinos ("Luzonians") to set foot in North America arrive in Morro Bay, (San Luis Obispo) California on board the Manila-built galleon ship Nuestra Senora de Esperanza under the command of Spanish Captain Pedro de Unamuno.
- 1595, Filipino were among the crew aboard the San Augustine when it wrecked near Point Reyes, California.
- 1720, Gaspar Molina, a Filipino from Pampanga province, oversees the construction of El Triunfo de la Cruz, the first ship built in California.
- 1763, First permanent Filipino settlements established in North America near Barataria Bay in southern Louisiana.
- 1781, Antonio Miranda Rodriguez chosen a member of the first group of settlers to establish the City of Los Angeles, California. He and his daughter fell sick with smallpox while en route, and remained in Baja California for an extended time to recuperate. When they finally arrived in Alta California, it was discovered that Miranda Rodriguez was a skilled gunsmith. He was reassigned in 1782 to the Presidio of Santa Barbara as an armorer.
- 1796, The first American trading ship to reach Manila, the Astrea, was commanded by Captain Henry Prince.
- 1814, During the War of 1812, Filipinos known as, "Manilamen", from Manila Village, near New Orleans, were among the "Baratarians", artillery gunners who fought against the British, under the command of Jean Lafitte and Andrew Jackson, in the Battle of New Orleans.
- 1861-1865, Approximately, 100 Filipinos and Chinese enlist, during the American Civil War, into the Union Army and Union Navy, as well as, serving, in smaller numbers, in the armed forces of the Confederate States of America.
- 1870, Filipinos mestizos studying in New Orleans form the first Filipino Association in the United States, the "Sociedad de Beneficencia de los Hispanos Filipinos."
- 1901, United States Navy begins recruiting Filipinos.
- 1902, Philippine–American War ends.
- 1902, Philippine Bill of 1902 passed by the U.S. Congress.
- 1903, First Pensionados, Filipinos invited to attend college in the United States on American government scholarships, arrive.
- 1906, First Filipino laborers migrate to the United States to work on the Hawaiian sugarcane and pineapple plantations, California and Washington asparagus farms, Washington lumber, Alaska salmon canneries. About 200 Filipino "pensionados" are brought to the U.S. to get an American education.
- 1910, First Filipino, Vicente Lim, attends West Point.
- 1911, Nevada became the first state to include Filipinos, referring to them as "Malays", in their miscegenation law.
- 1912, Filipino Association of Philadelphia (Now known as Filipino American Association of Philadelphia, Inc./FAAPI) is founded by Agripino Jaucian; it is perhaps the oldest Filipino organization in continuous existence in the United States. The name change came about to include the growing number of American wives.
- 1913, On June 15 The Battle of Bud Bagsak ends the Moro Rebellion
- 1917, Philippine National Guard mustered into federal service
- 1919, On August 31 Pablo Manlapit lawyer and community leader organizes the Filipino Labor Federation to demand higher wages and better working conditions for sakadas.
- 1920s, Filipino labor leaders organize unions and strategic strikes to improve working and living conditions.
- 1924, Filipino Workers’ Union (FLU) shuts down 16 of 25 sugar plantations.
- 1927, Anti-Filipino riots occur in the Yakima Valley, Washington.
- 1928, Filipino Businessman Pedro Flores opens Flores yo-yos, which is credited with starting the yo-yo craze in the United States. He came up with and copyrighted the word yo-yo. He also applied for and received a trademark for the Flores Yo-yo, which was registered on July 22, 1930. His company went on to be become the foundation of which would latter become the Duncan yo-yo company.Anti-Filipino riots occur in the Wenatchee Valley.
- 1929, Anti-Filipino riot occurs in Exeter, California.
- 1930, Anti-Filipino riots break out in Watsonville and other California rural communities, in part because of Filipino men having intimate relations with White women which was in violation of the California anti-miscegenation laws enacted during that time.
- 1930, the Stockton Filipino Center was bombed.
- 1933, After the Supreme Court of California found in Roldan v. Los Angeles County that existing laws against marriage between white persons and "Mongoloids" did not bar a Filipino man from marrying a white woman, California's anti-miscegenation law, Civil Code, section 60, was amended to prohibit marriages between white persons and members of the "Malay race" (e.g. Filipinos).
- 1934, The Tydings–McDuffie Act, known as the Philippine Independence Act limited Filipino immigration to the U.S. to 50 persons a year (not to apply to persons coming or seeking to come to the Territory of Hawaii).
- 1936, Philippines becomes self-governing. Commonwealth of the Philippines inaugurated.
- May 1942, After the fall of Bataan and Coregidor to the Japanese, the US Congress passes a law which grants US citizenship to Filipinos and other aliens who served under the U.S. Armed Forces.
- 1942–1944, After the official surrender of USAFFE under the command of LTG Wainwright, ongoing local guerrilla resistance groups operated throughout the islands against the Japanese occupation until the islands liberation by American lead Allied forces.
- October 1944, American General Douglas MacArthur and Sergio Osmeña, President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, together with the Armed Forces of the Philippines Generals Basilio J. Valdes and Carlos P. Romulo land the beaches at Palo, Leyte with the U.S. liberation forces.
- 1944–1945, Beginning the Allied Liberation of the Philippines was the country by joint Filipino and American soldiers fought the Japanese Imperial forces until the end of World War II.
- February 1946, President Truman signs the Rescission Act of 1946, taking away the veterans benefits pledged to Filipino service members during world War II. Only four thousand service members were able to gain citizenship during this period.
- 1946, The United States recognizes Philippine Independence through Treaty of Manila. Republic of the Philippines reclaims legacies from the Generation of 1898 including Philippine Flag and National Anthem. During the 1946 parade Emilio Aguinaldo marches with Filipino veterans of the War of Independence, carrying the flag he designed and originally unfurled after he declared Philippine Independence on June 12, 1898; America Is in the Heart by Carlos Bulosan published.Filipino Naturalization Act allows naturalization of Filipino Americans, granted citizenship to those who arrived prior to March 1943.
- 1948, California Supreme Court rules California's anti-miscegenation law unconstitutional in the case of Perez v. Sharp, ending racially based prohibitions of marriage in the state (although it wasn't until Loving v. Virginia in 1967 that interracial marriages were legalized nationwide). Celestino Alfafara wins California Supreme Court decision allowing aliens the right to own real property.
- 1955, Peter Aduja becomes first Filipino American elected to office, becoming a member of the Hawai'i State House of Representatives.
- 1956, Bobby Balcena becomes first Filipino American to play Major League baseball, playing for the Cincinnati Reds.
- 1965, Congress passes Immigration and Nationality Act which facilitated ease of entry for skilled Filipino laborers, raises quota of Eastern Hemisphere countries, including the Philippines, to 20,000 a year.
- 1965, Delano grape strike begins when members of Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee led by Philip Vera Cruz, Larry Dulay Itliong, Benjamin Gines, Andy Imutan and Pete Velasco with mostly Filipino farm workers.
- 1967, The Philippine American Collegiate Endeavor (PACE) founded by Pat Salaver along with other Filipino American students at San Francisco State College.
- 1969, Filipino Students Association (FSA) founded by Filipino American students at University of California, Berkeley during the Third World Movement; later renamed the Pilipino American Alliance(PAA).
- 1973, Larry Asera becomes the first Filipino American elected in the continental United States.
- 1974, Benjamin Menor appointed first Filipino American in a state's highest judiciary office as Justice of the Hawaiʻi State Supreme Court.
- 1975, Governor John A. Burns (D-HI) convinces Benjamin J. Cayetano to run and win a seat in the Hawaiʻi State Legislature, despite Cayetano's doubts about winning office in a white and Japanese American dominated district; Kauai's Eduardo Enabore Malapit elected first Filipino American mayor.
- 1981, Filipino American labor activists Silme Domingo and Gene Viernes are both assassinated June 1, 1981 inside a Seattle downtown union hall.
- 1981, International Hotel in Manilatown, San Francisco is demolished.
- 1987, Benjamin J. Cayetano becomes the first Filipino American and second Asian American elected Lt. Governor of a state of the Union.
- 1990, David Mercado Valderrama becomes first Filipino American elected to a state legislature on the mainland United States serving Prince George's County in Maryland. Immigration reform Act of 1990 is passed by the U.S. Congress granting U.S. citizenship to Filipino World War II veterans resulting in 20,000 Filipino veterans take oath of citizenship.
- 1991, Seattle's Gene Canque Liddell becomes first Filipino American woman to be elected mayor serving the suburb of Lacey City.
- 1992, Velma Veloria becomes first Filipino American and first Asian American elected to the Washington State Legislature.
- 1993, Mario R. Ramil appointed Associate Justice to the Hawai'i Supreme Court, the second Filipino American to reach the court.
- 1994, Benjamin J. Cayetano becomes the first Filipino American and second Asian American elected Governor of a state of the Union.
- 1995, The nation's largest Filipino mural, Gintong Kasaysayan, Gintong Pamana (Filipino Americans: A Glorious History, A Golden Legacy) in Los Angeles is unveiled and dedicated with over 600 people attending.
- 1999, US Postal worker Joseph Ileto murdered in a hate crime by Aryan Nations member Buford Furrow.
- 1999, First permanent museum display honoring a Filipino American, the Carlos Bulosan Memorial Exhibit opens in Seattle's Eastern Hotel in the International District, honoring Filipino American literary great Carlos Bulosan.
- 2000, Robert Bunda elected Hawai'i Senate President and Simeon R. Acoba, Jr. appointed Hawai'i State Supreme Court Justice.
- 2000, 'Price of Freedom' (100' x 30') US Veterans War Memorial mural near Vandenberg Air Force Base in Lompoc, California includes the Philippine–American War
- 2001, Bataan Death March Memorial, a federally funded project, was dedicated in Las Cruces, New Mexico.
- 2003, Philippine Republic Act No. 9225, also known as the Citizenship Retention and Re-Acquisition Act of 2003 enacted, allowing natural-born Filipinos naturalized in the United States and their unmarried minor children to reclaim Filipino nationality and hold dual citizenship.
- 2006, Congress passes legislation that commemorates the 100 Years of Filipino Migration to the United States.; Hawaii celebrates the centennial of Filipinos in Hawaii.
- 2006, First monument dedicated to Filipino soldiers who fought for the United States in World War II unveiled in Historic Filipinotown, Los Angeles, California.
- 2007, First American public park built with Filipino themed design features unveiled in LA's Historic Filipinotown.
- 2008, Bruce Reyes-Chow, 3rd generation Filipino and Chinese American was Elected Moderator of Presbyterian Church (USA).
- 2009, Steve Austria becomes "the first, first-generation Filipino to be elected to the United States Congress.".Mona Pasquil becomes first Filipino- and Asian-American lieutenant governor of California.
- 2013, California passed legislation sponsored by Rob Bonta, that required that Filipino contributions to the state's history be included in the curriculum.
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- ^"Filipino American History". Northern California Pilipino American Student Organization. California State University, Chico. January 29, 1998. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- ^"Learn about our culture". Filipino Student Association. Saint Louis University. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
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