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Copper Silver Nitrate Reaction Lab Conclusion Essay

 

Copper and Silver Nitrate- Mike LiuObjective- To determine if the copper reacted was copper (I) or copper (II)Procedure-Weigh a Packet containing silver nitrate and transfer the AgNo3 into a small 50 mL beakercontaining 15 ml of distilled water. Mix until dissolved and weigh the paper. Make a copperwire assembly and weigh it. Transfer AgNO3 to a large test tube. Wash the Beaker twice with 5ml of distilled water, transferring the washings to a test tube. Wait 30 minutes while observingthe reaction. After 30 minutes are up, weigh a piece of filter paper and filter the silver. Discardthe filtrate and wash the filter paper twice with distilled water. Place the silver and filter paperin a small beaker, and put it on a window sill. Place the copper wire on a paper towel and weighboth the silver and copper wire during the next day.Observations-1.

Copper turns a bluish silver color and fuzz begins to form on the copper2.

Flakes start to fall off from the fuzz3.

Solution is now a light blue4.

There is a little bit of vapor condensing on the side of the test tube5.

Edge of copper is darkening after 30 minutes6.

Fuzz is brown in some areas while in others, silver7.

Solution is now a dark blue

Purpose: Two observe two different single displacement reactions.
Hypothesis:

When zinc is added to copper (II) sulfate, a single displacement reaction will take place, creating a solid, copper, and zinc sulfate.

When zinc is added to hydrochloric acid, hydrogen gas will be released a solid, zinc chloride, will be formed.

Materials:

  • Hydrochloric acid
  • Zinc
  • Copper (II) sulfate
  • Test tubes (4)
  • Graduated cylinder
  • Watch glasses

Procedure:

Part A

  • Pour 2ml of copper (II) sulfate in a test tube. Record the physical properties of the solution.
  • Record the physical properties of zinc.
  • Add the zinc to the solution.
  • Observe and record the reaction.
  • After 30 minutes, record the new colour of the solution and the physical properties of zinc.

Part B

  • Pour 2 ml of hydrochloric acid into the test tube. Record the physical properties of the solution.
  • After recording the physical properties of zinc, add it to the solution.
  • Observe and record the reaction.

Questions:

  • What indicated that a chemical reaction took place when zinc and copper (II) sulfate were combined?
    1. Observations such as zinc turning black soon after being placed in water indicated that a chemical reaction had taken place.
  • What indicated that a chemical reaction took place when zinc and hydrochloric acid were combined?
    1. When zinc and hydrochloric acid were combined, zinc turned black and hydrogen bubbles were released. This indicated that a chemical reaction had taken place.
  • Name the reactants in Part A:
    1. copper (I) sulfate + zinc
  • Name the products in Part A:
    1. zinc sulfate + copper
  • Name the reactants in Part B:
    1. hydrochloric acid + zinc
  • Name the products in Part B:
    1. hydrogen + zinc chloride
  • What new elements were formed in Part A? In Part B?
    1. Part A – copper

Part B – hydrogen

  • What new compounds were formed in Part A? In Part B?
    1. Part A – zinc sulfate

Part B – zinc chloride

  • Complete and balance the chemical equations below that represent the chemical reactions, which took place:
Zn+CuSO4=>Cu+ZnSO4
Zn+2HCl=>H2+ZnCl2

 

  • What is a single replacement reaction?
    1. A single displacement reaction occurs when an element reacts with a compound in a chemical reaction. During the reaction, the element replaces the anion or the cation in the compound.
  • Complete and balance the following single replacement reactions:
A.Fe II+CuSO4=>FeSO4+Cu
B.Cu I+AgNO3=>CuNO3+Ag
C.Zn+AgNO3=>Zn(NO3)2+Ag
D.Cu II+HgCl2=>CuCl2+Hg
E.K+NaCl=>KCl+Na
F.2HOH+Ca=>Ca(OH)2+H2
G.MgBr2+Cl2=>MgCl2+Br2
H.Fe2O3+2Al=>Al2O3+2Fe
I.3H2SO4+2Al=>Al­2(SO4)3+3H2
J.2KI+Cl2=>2KCl+I2

 

  • Write the names of the reactants and products for the equations listed in question number 12:
 ReactantsProducts
A.ironcopper (I) sulfateiron (II) sulfatecopper
B.coppersilver nitratecopper (I) nitratesilver
C.zincsilver nitratezinc nitratesilver
D.coppermercury (II) chloridecopper (II) chloridemercury
E.potassiumsodium chloridepotassium chloridesodium
F.watercalciumcalcium hydroxidehydrogen gas
G.magnesium bromidechlorine gasmagnesium chloridebromine gas
H.iron (III) oxidealuminumaluminum oxideiron
I.sulfuric acidaluminumaluminum sulfatehydrogen gas
J.potassium iodidechlorine gaspotassium chlorideiodine gas

 

Theory:

In order for a single displacement reaction to occur, an element and a compound need to be present. When the element and the compound are mixed, the element replaces the anion or the cation in the compound. During the experiment, when zinc was added to copper (II) sulfate, zinc reacted with copper (II) sulfate to create zinc sulfate and copper. In this reaction, the element, zinc, replaced copper in the compound copper sulfate, thus creating zinc sulfate. Similarly, when hydrochloric acid reacted with zinc, zinc replaced hydrogen, creating zinc chloride and hydrogen gas.

Observations:

ReactantsColourState
Part A:
Copper (II) sulfateBlueLiquid
ZincSilver, metalSolid
Part B:
Hydrochloric acidClearLiquid
ZincSilver, metalSolid

Fig 1. Physical properties of the reactants

ProductsColourState
Part A:
Zinc sulfateLight blueLiquid
CopperRed-brownSolid
Part B:
Zinc chlorideBlackSolid
Hydrogen gasClearGas

Fig 2. Physical properties of the reactants

Conclusion:

When zinc was added to copper (II) sulfate, it reacted to create a solution, zinc sulfate, and a solid, copper. When zinc was added to hydrochloric acid, hydrogen gas and zinc sulfate were produced, therefore the hypothesis was supported.

Sources of error:

During the experiment, several factors could have possibly affected the results of the observations. One of these factors includes the contamination of the test tubes. After washing the test tubes, water or other acids could have been left behind, affecting the results of the upcoming experiments. Another factor that would have affected the results would have been the inaccurate measurement of the solution. Even if the solution differed by few drops, it could have affected the results.

Works cited:

Clancy, Christina et al. McGraw-Hill Ryerson Chemistry 11. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2011. Print