India is a land of villages. It is said that real India lives in villages. About seventy per cent of its population lives in villages. India is undergoing revolutionary changes. Its villages are not untouched by those changes.
The changes are reflected in every walk of life. These changes have been brought by various agents. These include science, technology, and spread of education, advent of media in rural areas, industrialisation, urbanisation and migration. Hence the lifestyle, attitude and thinking have changed greatly in rural India. In fact these factors have combined to change the ritualistic rural society into a dynamic society.
Traditionally, Hindu society has been caste ridden. Caste-based division has been prominently visible in rural India. The people of upper caste treated themselves superior to the people of lower caste. Discrimination against them was a commonplace event. People of upper caste did not eat or drink anything even touched by the lower caste people. Even they were not allowed to take water from the well used by the upper caste people. They are not allowed entrance in temples. Such unjust distinction based on caste, colour and community was widely prevalent in Indian society.
But things are rapidly changing now. People do not care tor any such distinction. There is an interdependence existence in society. There is a close interaction of people of different castes, creeds and religions, among them for various purposes. The outlook of the villagers has undergone sea change. They have begun to see things in broader context. This is a good sign.
The access of media has brought big changes in their life. Now they have realised the importance of education. They no longer hold back their girls from going to schools and colleges. They have begun to come out of the four walls of their homes. They have started sharing responsibility with their male counterpart. Naturally, it has a positive impact on society.
Agriculture, which is the mainstay of rural economy, is also being influenced by the winds of changes sweeping across various walks of life. It is no longer left to the mercy of Nature. The agrarian reforms, increasing application of science and technology are bringing sea changes in the faces of villages. Availability of safe drinking water and electricity has made the life of the villagers easier and comfortable. Mass media has also contributed a lot to change the life of the villages. Now rituals and superstitions have begun fading away. People have begun to see things in the light of reason and logic.
There is a great awakening in the villagers. They are now politically and economically aware and sound. There is no longer casteism in rural society. These changes are likely to have good impact on overall progress of India.
The soul of India lives in its villages, 60 percent of the population still lives in villages of India. Indian villages have a very beautiful and attractive lifestyle. The Villages are free from the hustle and bustle of a city life, villages are peaceful, calm, quite and full of greenery where one can breathe fresh air. The beauties of villages are described by the way villagers happily live in the small huts or a home, made by clay or mud. A big open area with trees at the front and a vegetable garden at the backyard, surrounded by the bamboos. The villagers are socially knit together, every evening they assemble in the village “Chopal” with their ‘hukkas’ and chatting and talking goes on till late the night.Indian village house are Eco- friendly in nature, made by bamboos and mud’s. The houses in Indian villages are mostly built of bamboo with thatched roofs. Wall and floor of the village houses are by painted by a mixture of dirt, grass, and cow shit. Before and after rain, these house need a maintenance every time. Most of the people who live in villages are farmers, other works as potters, carpenters, blacksmith. Bull’s are use for farming and other activity in field. Women work planting the rice paddy, while the men work pulling bullock carts, tilling new soil etc.The educational status of the people in the villages of India is not so good, some of the villages even don’t have school. There are no water supply, no indoor toilets and no electricity. River water, well or hand pump are the main source of water. Life in the villages of India differ from one region to another, these Indian villages contain the list of famous tribal groups in India. The life style of villagers are very clean,sweet and simple. They don’t dream for big house,vehicle,money etc, whatever they got that is enough to live their life happily.