Before you begin, be sure to model and discuss each step of the writing process (prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing), preferably using a whole-class story or class newsletter article. Please note that the revising stage precedes editing. Student should have already worked through content revisions before reaching the editing step.
When they are ready for the editing stage of the writing process, students should edit their writing and then meet with a partner to engage in peer editing. Prior to having students use this tool independently, it is important to model its use. To do this, display sample text on an overhead projector, document camera, or SMART Board so that all students can view it. Model the use of the self-edit column with the displayed text, with you assuming the role of author. Then have a volunteer fill out the peer-edit column so that all students can hear and view the process. Finally, discuss what went well and what could be improved in the editing steps that were modeled.
This tool serves multiple purposes, including:
- The self-edit step
- encourages students to evaluate specific features of their writing, increasing self-awareness of writing conventions
- keeps the pen in the writers hand for the initial editing phase
- The peer-edit step
- helps build a learning community in which peers work collaboratively
- heightens the awareness of various print and grammatical conventions for the peer editor and the author
- Use a fish-bowl technique to allow the class to view a self- and peer-edit session of two of their classmates. To do this, first choose one student to model the self-editing phase. It is helpful to select a student who has a good understanding of the criteria on the rubric, such as proper grammar and punctuation. That student works through the items in the self-edit column as the other students observe. It is helpful to put the editing checklist on an overhead projector or document camera so all students can see the process. After the self-edit is complete, discuss the process with the students. Next, choose another student to serve as the peer editor for the piece that was just self-edited. Have the two students sit in the middle of the class so that all students can see and hear them as they work through the peer-editing phase. Afterward, include the entire class in a discussion about the process itself and ways in which the editing session will help the author and peer editor improve on their writing.
- Have students work in groups of two or three to edit one piece of writing. The interaction between peers will help make the editing process more explicit. While the students are working in groups, move from group to group to check their understanding of the editing process and use of the checklist. Try to notice groups that lack comments in the Comments and Suggestions columns and encourage them to use this section to provide feedback to the writer, particularly for criteria that lack a check mark. To guide them, you could ask, What do you think you could write in the Comments section to help the writer fix this error? Be sure to tell students that if they are unable to mark a check in the After completing each step, place a check here column, they must indicate the reason why they cannot check it in the Comments and Suggestions column.
- Regularly review the editing process by using samples of students work or your own writing samples. Assess students progress of the editing process by creating a simple checklist. List all students names down the first column and a row for dates on which the editing checklist was used across the top. Then, as you observe students during the editing process, you can rate their level of effectiveness as an editor by using simple marks, such as:
NO = Not Observed (use this for students you did not get to observe on that date)
+ = exceeds expectations
√ = meets expectations
- = below expectations
Student Names Date 1 Date 2 Date 3 Date 4 Student A Student B
If you notice a student who receives a below expectations two times in a row, you can have him or her work with a peer who typically scores above expectations to model the process for him.
- If your school uses a team approach for grouping students (a group of students who all share the same content area teachers), consider encouraging other team teachers to use this checklist in their respective content areas. Consistency in the editing process will help students understand that the editing process can apply to all written pieces, regardless of the content area.
Grades 5 – 8 | Lesson Plan | Standard Lesson
Digitally Telling the Story of Greek Figures
In this lesson students research Greek gods, heroes, and creatures and then share their findings through digital storytelling.
When a student writes a rough draft, they are demonstrating their level of independent writing. However, it is when a student engages in revising and editing that the real growth begins. It is not easy to engage students in the revising and editing processes. It is one of my toughest challenges. I have had students hand in replicas of their rough drafts, neatly written as final copies. Sound familiar? So, how did I get my students to walk into my classroom this week and ask if they could revise and edit for a second day in a row?
Last week, I taught my students how to engage in "musical papers," a peer review process. It is like musical chairs, except I don’t remove a chair. While the music is playing, the students navigate around the room. When the music stops, the students stop, find a desk with a paper, and begin analyzing their classmate's paper. Middle school students love music; however, when I designed musical papers, I didn’t realize how powerful it would be. The students love getting out of their seats, bebopping around the room, and stopping long enough to evaluate each other’s writing. The key to success in musical papers is knowing your students’ taste in music. If you aren’t sure what they like, survey them. If you play music they like, they will engage.
ESTABLISHING WRITING GOALS
I introduce musical papers when I first teach sentence structure. Sentences are short, which supports students of all abilities as they learn to engage in the peer review process. I provide the students with a list of editing symbols and a checklist: capital letters at the beginning of the sentence, detailed subjects, vivid predicates, and ending punctuation. I use the 6 + 1 Traits of Writing: ideas, voice, organization, sentence fluency, word choice, and conventions. The Traits of Writing give us a common language to use when discussing writing strengths and weaknesses. During writer's workshop, the mini-lesson focuses on an area of weakness that is present with my largest population of students. Scholastic publishes two great revising and editing mini-lesson resources that may help you in planning instruction that meets your students’ needs:
- 50 Writing Lessons That Work! by Carol Rawlings Miller
- Revision Mini-Lessonsby Sarah J. Glasscock
When I conference with students, I provide additional individualized instruction. Whether it is a mini-lesson or an individualized lesson, students are responsible for demonstrating the new skill in their writing as well as previously learned skills. Whatever the lesson outcome, I provide explicit directions and a rubric or a checklist to guide my students in the peer review process.
PEER REVIEW TRAINING
Before engaging in musical papers, the students need peer review skills. I created a peer review editing checklist to guide them in using editing symbols during the review process, so they share a common language. They also need to know how to be effective and supportive reviewers, so the author is not offended and will continue to take risks in writing. Students also need training on how to receive constructive criticism. Annenberg offers a fabulous free online workshop that guides teachers through the writing workshop process, Write in the Middle: A Workshop for Middle School Teachers. "Workshop 7: Responding to Writing: Peer to Peer," guides teachers in establishing a constructive and supportive peer-to-peer review. They also provide a free online video for additional support.
MUSICAL PAPERS LESSON
(Download musical papers lesson plan.)
- Student rough drafts
- My editing guide (grades 6–8) or Scholastic Printables editing symbols (Grades 3–6)
- Scotch tape (optional)
- Colored pens and/or pencils
- Music, from CDs, YouTube, iTunes, Pandora (free customizable Internet radio station), etc.
- Rubric or revision checklist
- Review the writing goals for the assignment.
- Review the rubric or revision checklist.
- Students clear off the desk and leave just the checklist and their papers on the desk. Taping them to the desk ensures that reviewers don’t accidentally take them.
- Give each student a colored pen or pencil and a copy of the editing symbols sheet for reference.
- All students stand and push in their chairs.
- Model the direction that everyone will be traveling.
- When the music starts, the students walk around the room.
- When the music stops, they quickly find a seat at a desk.
- The teacher sets the timer and the students begin reviewing.
- The reviewer reads the paper and provides feedback using editing symbols. Before leaving the desk, each student signs his or her name as the reviewer.
- When the timer goes off, the students get up and push in their chairs.
- The music starts again and the students circulate to the music.
- Repeat steps 5–12 until each student has reviewed at three different papers.
- After the third review, students return to their own seats.
- Set the timer for a time that is appropriate for the length of the writing piece.
- Each student reads the reviewers’ comments. If they have any questions, the author has time to seek the reviewer for clarification,
- The authors revise and edit.
- When they finish, they whisper read their text, so they can hear the music of their words.
When we finish musical papers, the students engage in whisper reading. This is a time for the authors to hear the music of the written language. At the middle school level, students are self-conscious, and therefore, reluctant to read their writing aloud. Whisper reading with their ears plugged alleviates their concerns because they don't have to speak loudly. If students make any corrections or use editing marks during whisper reading, they do not count against them. Pictured here are student samples of the SAT vocabulary sentences we used to train in peer reviewing. Notice how they provide positive feedback as well as constructive criticism.
When introducing whisper reading, I have every other student put their elbows on their desk, plug his or her ears, and read while their neighbor listens. This proves to them that others cannot hear them. The listener gives a thumbs up, indicating when they can hear the reader. The readers are surprised that their neighbors cannot hear them when their voice is so loud in their head. They also marvel at how many “silly” mistakes they find while they are reading, which makes me happy.